About Oral Cancer
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth.
The oral cavity includes the following:
- The front two thirds of the tongue.
- The gingiva (gums).
- The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks).
- The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue.
- The hard palate (the roof of the mouth).
- The retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth).
Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off).
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.
Signs of lip and oral cavity cancer include a sore or lump on the lips or in the mouth.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by lip and oral cavity cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- A sore on the lip or in the mouth that does not heal.
- A lump or thickening on the lips or gums or in the mouth.
- A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth.
- Bleeding, pain, or numbness in the lip or mouth.
- Change in voice.
- Loose teeth or dentures that no longer fit well.
- Trouble chewing or swallowing or moving the tongue or jaw.
- Swelling of jaw.
- Sore throat or feeling that something is caught in the throat.
- Lip and oral cavity cancer may not have any symptoms and is sometimes found during a regular dental exam.
Tobacco and alcohol use can affect the risk of lip and oral cavity cancer.
Risk factors for lip and oral cavity cancer include the following:
- Using tobacco products.
- Heavy alcohol use.
- Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) over long periods of time.
- Being male.